Rohilkhand Cancer Institute

Melanoma skin cancer

One variety of skin cancer is melanoma. Melanocytes, which are skin cells, give rise to it.

Skin cancer can be classified into two primary categories: non-melanoma (which includes basal cell, squamous, and other uncommon kinds) and melanoma. The melanoma form of skin cancer is discussed here.

Describe skin cancer.

Non-melanoma skin cancer and melanoma skin cancer are the two main kinds of skin cancer.

Skin cancers with no melanoma include:

  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is another name for basal cell skin cancer.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is another name for squamous cell skin cancer.
  • other uncommon types

The website’s non-melanoma skin cancer section is here. For skin cancer melanoma, see another section.

Skin that has been exposed to the sun tends to develop non-melanoma skin cancers the most frequently. These malignancies have a high rate of cure. Most patients merely require minimal surgery and don’t require any additional care.

It’s crucial that you routinely examine your skin.

The function of the skin

The skin performs a variety of tasks, such as:

  • defending the body’s interior from harm
  • helping to maintain our body temperature at a constant level
  • eliminating some bodily waste through sweat
  • making vitamin D (this helps form and maintain our bones)

The epidermis on the outside and the dermis inside make up the two primary layers of skin.

Depending on the area of the body that the skin is covering, the epidermis and dermis have different thicknesses. Your foot’s sole, for instance, has skin that is roughly 5mm thick and is quite thick. Your eyelid’s skin is considerably thinner, measuring only 0.5mm.

Skin cellular components

The majority of skin malignancies are caused by sun damage. The epidermis’s cells are particularly susceptible to solar damage.

Keratinocytes are the most prevalent kind of epidermis-found cells. At the base of the epidermis are basal cells, a subtype of keratinocyte. All healthy skin cells originate in the basal layer, which is also where basal cell skin cancer begins. The medical term for this is basal cell carcinoma (BCC).

Cells that have perished and propelled up from the basal layer make up the top two layers of skin. They include keratin, which keratinocytes produce. It is a hard, waxy material that aids in strengthening the skin so it can defend the body.

Keratinocytes in the epidermis can also develop into squamous cell skin cancer. Also known as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), this condition. These malignancies start in the layer of cells immediately above the basal layer.

Melanocytes, which are skin cells, are where melanoma skin cancer begins. These epidermal cells are found in the thicker layers. It is produced by melanocytes. This is the brown substance (pigment) that makes skin look darker. The melanocytes produce melanin when the skin is exposed to the sun.

skin cancer types

There are two basic forms of non-melanoma skin cancer:

1 cancer of the basal cell (BCC)

2 (SCC) squamous cell carcinoma

They have the names of the several skin cell types where the cancer grows. A non-melanoma skin cancer may combine elements of both of these subtypes.

Skin cancer that isn’t melanoma is distinct from that. The kind of skin cancer known as melanoma frequently begins as a mole. This could be an existing mole on your skin or a lesion that has only recently developed.

Basal cell carcinoma

The most typical kind of skin cancer is BCC. BCCs make up about 75% of all non-melanoma skin cancer cases. They originate from basal cells, which are located in the deepest region of the epidermis, the skin’s outer layer.

They mainly appear on skin exposed to the sun, which includes the nose, forehead, and cheeks on the face. Likewise, on your back or thighs.

They are typically diagnosed in middle-aged or older patients.

Basal cell carcinoma is sometimes referred to as a rodent ulcer by doctors.

There are several different BCC kinds. Different types might vary in appearance and behaviour. They consist of:

basal cell skin cancer with nodules
skin carcinoma of the superficial basal cells
Sclerosing or infiltrating basal cell skin cancer, also known as morpheic basal cell skin cancer
Basal cell skin cancer with coloration
Basal cell cancer with nodules is the most prevalent subtype.

The development of a secondary carcinoma from basal cell skin cancer is extremely uncommon. Multiple basal cell cancers can exist concurrently, and having one increases your chance of developing another.

Squamous cell skin cancer

SCC is generally faster growing than basal cell cancers. Around 23 out of every 100 skin cancers (around 23%) are SCCs. They begin in cells called keratinocytes, which are found in the epidermis.

Most SCCs develop on areas of skin exposed to the sun. These areas include parts of the head, neck, and on the back of your hands and forearms. They can also develop on scars, areas of skin that have been burnt in the past, or that have been ulcerated for a long time.

SCCs don’t often spread. If they do, it’s most often to the deeper layers of the skin. They can spread to nearby lymph nodes and other parts of the body, but this is unusual.

Rarer non-melanoma skin cancer kinds
There are additional, less typical varieties of skin cancer. These consist of:

Merkel cell tumour
Sarcoma of Kaposi
A skin T cell lymphoma
shaved follicle cancer
In contrast to basal cell and squamous cell skin malignancies, each of these is handled differently.

Merkel cell tumour
Merkel cell cancer is extremely uncommon. Surgery, radiation, or both are used as treatments. The majority of the time, this is effective, but occasionally the cancer can return in the same area. Additionally, it can occasionally migrate to neighbouring lymph nodes or to other bodily regions.


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