Rohilkhand Cancer Institute

Prostate cancer – Symptoms and causes

Prostate cancer - Symptoms and causes -Rohilkhand Cancer Institute Bareilly UP

Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the prostate. In males, the prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland that generates seminal fluid, which nourishes and transports sperm.

One of the most common types of cancer is prostate cancer. Many prostate cancers grow slowly and are restricted to the prostate gland, where they may not cause significant harm. While some types of prostate cancer develop slowly and may require little or no therapy, others are aggressive and spread quickly.

Prostate cancer that is identified early, while it is still localised to the prostate gland, has the best chance of being treated successfully.

Symptoms

1 In the early stages of prostate cancer, there may be no signs or symptoms.

2 More advanced prostate cancer can cause the following signs and symptoms:

  • Trouble urinating
  • Decreased force in the stream of urine
  • Blood in the urine
  • Blood in the semen
  • Bone pain
  • Losing weight without trying
  • Erectile dysfunction

When should you see a doctor?

Make an appointment with your doctor if you are concerned about any persistent signs or symptoms.

Causes

 

It is unknown what causes prostate cancer.

Doctors understand that prostate cancer originates when cells in the prostate undergo DNA alterations. The DNA of a cell includes the instructions that inform the cell what to do. The modifications instruct the cells to grow and divide faster than normal ones. When other cells die, the aberrant ones continue to live.

The accumulated aberrant cells form a tumour, which can spread and infect surrounding tissue. Some aberrant cells may break away and spread (metastasize) to other places of the body over time.

 

Risk factors

The following factors can raise your risk of prostate cancer:

Getting older. As you become older, your chances of developing prostate cancer rise. It is most common after the age of 50.

Race. Black persons are more likely than other races to develop prostate cancer for unknown causes. Prostate cancer is more likely to be aggressive or progressed in Black persons.

A family tree. Your risk may be elevated if a blood related, such as a parent, brother, or child, has been diagnosed with prostate cancer. Furthermore, if you have a family history of breast cancer genes (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be increased.

Obesity. Obese people may have a higher risk of prostate cancer than people of a healthy weight, while studies have yielded mixed results. Cancer is more likely to be aggressive and to return after early treatment in obese people.

Complications

Prostate cancer complications and therapies include:

Spreading cancer (metastasizes). Prostate cancer can spread to neighbouring organs, such as your bladder, or travel to your bones or other organs via your bloodstream or lymphatic system. Pain and shattered bones can result from prostate cancer that has spread to the bones. Prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body may still react to treatment and be managed, but it is unlikely to be cured.

Incontinence. Urinary incontinence can be caused by both prostate cancer and its therapy. Treatment for incontinence is determined by the kind, severity, and possibility of improvement over time. Medication, catheters, and surgery are all possible treatment options.

ED stands for erectile dysfunction. Prostate cancer and its therapies, such as surgery, radiation, or hormone therapy, can cause erectile dysfunction. To treat erectile dysfunction, medications, hoover devices that aid in obtaining an erection, and surgery are available.

Prevention

You can lower your chance of prostate cancer by doing the following:

Choose a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Consume a wide range of fruits, vegetables, and entire grains. Fruits and vegetables provide a variety of vitamins and nutrients that can benefit your health.

It is yet to be proven whether nutrition can help prevent prostate cancer. However, eating a nutritious diet rich in fruits and vegetables might improve your general health.

Healthy foods should be prioritised over supplements. There has been no evidence that supplements reduce your risk of prostate cancer. Instead, choose foods high in vitamins and minerals to help your body maintain optimum vitamin levels.

Most days of the week, exercise. Exercise enhances your general health, aids in weight maintenance, and elevates your mood. Make an effort to exercise on most days of the week. If you’re new to fitness, start slowly and gradually increase your daily exercise time.

Keep a healthy weight. If your present weight is healthy, aim to keep it that way by eating well and exercising most days of the week. If you need to lose weight, increase your workout and decrease your daily calorie intake. Consult your doctor for assistance in developing a healthy weight loss strategy.

Discuss the increased risk of prostate cancer with your doctor. If you are at a high risk of developing prostate cancer, you and your doctor may discuss medicines or other therapies to minimise your risk. According to certain studies, taking 5-alpha reductase inhibitors such as finasteride (Propecia, Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart) may reduce the overall chance of getting prostate cancer. These medications are used to treat prostate enlargement and hair loss.

However, some data suggests that persons who use these treatments may be more likely to develop a more serious form of prostate cancer (high-grade prostate cancer). Consult your doctor if you are concerned about your chance of acquiring prostate cancer.