Rohilkhand Cancer Institute

Brain Cancer

Typically, they spread quickly and attack nearby healthy brain tissue. Due to the changes, it makes to the essential brain structures, brain cancer can be fatal. Malignant tumours with their origins in or close to the brain include medulloblastoma, olfactory neuroblastoma, and chondrosarcoma.

Cell growth in or around the brain is referred to as a brain tumour. The tissue of the brain is susceptible to brain tumours. Brain tumours are also possibly close to the brain tissue. The pituitary gland, pineal gland, and membranes that surround the surface of the brain are nearby structures.

Primary brain tumours come in many distinct varieties. There are some benign brain tumours. These are referred to as benign or noncancerous brain tumours. Noncancerous brain tumours can enlarge and put pressure on the brain tissue over time. Malignant brain tumours, commonly known as brain cancers, are several types of brain tumours. Brain tumours may advance swiftly. Cancerous cells can infiltrate and kill brain tissue.

Brain tumours can be very little or quite enormous. Because they produce symptoms that you can immediately identify, some brain tumours are discovered while they are very little. Before they are discovered, other brain tumours enlarge considerably. The brain has several regions that are more and less active.

Types

Brain tumours can take many different forms. The kind of cells that make up the tumour determine the type of brain tumour. On the tumour cells, specialised lab tests can reveal information about the cells. This data is used by your medical team to identify the kind of brain tumour.

Most brain tumours of certain forms are not malignant. These are referred to as benign or noncancerous brain tumours. Most brain tumours of certain forms are malignant. These are referred to as malignant brain tumours or brain cancers. Both benign and malignant brain tumour kinds exist.

Types of brain tumours include:

Gliomas and related brain tumours.

Gliomas are cell growths that resemble glial cells. In the brain tissue, glial cells encircle and support nerve cells. Astrocytoma, glioblastoma, oligodendroglioma, and ependymoma are some of the several glioma and associated brain cancer types. Although benign gliomas can occur, the majority do. The most typical form of malignant brain tumour is glioblastoma.

Choroid plexus tumours.

The cells that produce the fluid that covers the brain and spinal cord are where choroid plexus tumours originate. Cerebrospinal fluid is the name of this substance. The fluid-filled spaces in the brain called the ventricles are where choroid plexus tumours are found. Tumours of the choroid plexus can be benign or cancerous. The malignant variation of this sort of brain tumour is choroid plexus carcinoma. The prevalence is higher in kids.

Embryonal tumours.

Cells that are left behind from foetal development are where embryonic tumours start. After birth, the embryonal cells continue to exist in the brain. Malignant brain tumours called embryonal tumours most frequently affect infants and young children. Medulloblastoma is the most prevalent kind of embryonal tumour. The cerebellum, a region of the brain in the back, is often where it is located.

Pituitary tumours.

Pituitary tumours can start in or around the pituitary gland. This little gland is situated not far from the brain’s base. The majority of tumours that develop in or near the pituitary gland are benign. The pituitary gland itself can develop tumours. The brain tumour known as a craniopharyngioma develops close to the pituitary gland.

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of a brain tumour depend on the brain tumour’s size and location. Symptoms also might depend on how fast the brain tumour is growing, which is also called the tumour grade.

General signs and symptoms caused by brain tumours may include:

  • Headache or pressure in the head that is worse in the morning.
  • Headaches that happen more often and seem more severe.
  • Headaches that are sometimes described as tension headaches or migraines.
  • Nausea or vomiting.
  • Eye problems, such as blurry vision, seeing double or losing sight on the sides of your vision.
  • Losing feeling or movement in an arm or a leg.
  • Trouble with balance.
  • Speech problems.
  • Feeling very tired.
  • Confusion in everyday matters.
  • Memory problems.
  • Having trouble following simple commands.
  • Personality or behaviour changes.
  • Seizures, especially if there is no history of seizures.
  • Hearing problems.
  • Dizziness or a sense that the world is spinning, also called vertigo.
  • Feeling very hungry and gaining weight.

Symptoms of non-cancerous brain tumours typically appear gradually. Benign brain tumours are another name for non-cancerous brain tumours. They could produce minor symptoms that you initially don’t notice. Over months or years, the symptoms could worsen.

The symptoms of cancerous brain tumours rapidly worsen. Malignant brain tumours and brain cancer are other names for cancerous brain tumours. They result in symptoms that appear out of nowhere. Within a few days or weeks, they deteriorate further.

Brain tumour headaches

The most typical symptom of brain tumours is headaches. About 50% of persons with brain tumours get headaches. If a developing brain tumour pushes on nearby healthy cells, headaches may result. Or a brain tumour may expand the brain, increasing head pressure and bringing on a headache.

Brain tumour-related headache discomfort frequently gets worse in the morning. But it’s possible at any time. Some people are awakened from sleep by headaches. When coughing or straining, headaches from brain tumours frequently become more painful. Most frequently, brain tumour patients describe their headache as feeling like a tension headache. Some claim that the headache is similar to a migraine.

Brain tumour symptoms by location

The main part of the brain is called the cerebrum. Brain tumours in different parts of the cerebrum might cause different symptoms.

Causes

Brain tumours that begin in the brain

Primary brain tumours are those that develop from an expansion of brain cells. They may begin directly in the brain or surrounding tissue. The meninges, which cover the brain, may be among the nearby tissue. Nerves, the pituitary, and the pineal gland can all develop brain tumours.

Brain tumours develop when the DNA of cells in or around the brain is altered. The instructions that inform a cell what to do are stored in its DNA. When healthy cells would naturally perish as a part of their life cycle, the alterations instruct the cells to proliferate swiftly and keep surviving. This produces a large number of additional brain cells. A tumour can develop from the cells.

The reason for the DNA alterations that result in brain tumours is unknown. The cause of brain tumours is unknown in many cases. Children’s DNA can occasionally change due to parental influences. The modifications could make having a brain tumour more likely. These inherited brain tumours are uncommon. Inform your healthcare professional if there is a family history of brain tumours. If you want to know whether your family history puts you at a higher risk of developing a brain tumour, you might think about scheduling a consultation with a doctor who specialises in genetics.

Children are more prone to develop primary brain tumours when they get a brain tumour. Brain tumours in adulthood are more frequent cancers that originated elsewhere and progress to the brain.

Secondary brain tumours happen when cancer starts somewhere else and spreads to the brain. When cancer spreads, it’s called metastatic cancer.

Any cancer can spread to the brain, but common types include:

  • Breast cancer.
  • Colon cancer.
  • Kidney cancer.
  • Lung cancer.
  • Melanoma.

Prevention

There’s no way to prevent brain tumours. If you get a brain tumour, you didn’t do anything to cause it.

People who are at higher risk for brain tumours can think about screening exams. Brain tumour prevention is not through screening. However, screening could assist in detecting a brain tumour when it is still small and more amenable to therapy.

Speak with your healthcare practitioner if you have a family history of brain tumours or genetic disorders that enhance the risk of brain tumours. You might think about scheduling a consultation with a genetic counsellor or another medical professional with genetics training. You can learn how to manage your risk with the assistance of this person. Consider brain tumour screening tests, for instance. Your vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and reflexes may be tested via an imaging test or a neurological examination.

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