Rohilkhand Cancer Institute

Cancer – Symptoms and causes

Cancer - Symptoms and causes - Rohilkhand Cancer Institute | Pet CT Scan in Bareilly


Any of a wide range of disorders marked by the growth of aberrant cells that divide uncontrollably and can invade and destroy healthy bodily tissue are collectively referred to as cancers. It is common for cancer to spread throughout the body.

The second most common cause of mortality worldwide is cancer. However, due to advancements in cancer detection, therapy, and prevention, survival rates are rising for a wide range of cancer types.


Cancer - Symptoms and causes - Rohilkhand Cancer Institute | Pet CT Scan in Bareilly



The body portion afflicted by cancer will determine the signs and symptoms that appear.

While not exclusive to cancer, some broad indications and symptoms of the disease include:

1 Fatigue
2 Hoarseness
3 Difficulty swallowing
4 Changes in bowel or bladder habits
5 Unexplained bleeding or bruising
6 Persistent cough or trouble breathing
7 Persistent, unexplained muscle or joint pain
8 Persistent, unexplained fevers or night sweats
9 Persistent indigestion or discomfort after eating
10 Weight changes, including unintended loss or gain
11 Lump or area of thickening that can be felt under the skin
12Skin changes, such as yellowing, darkening or redness of the skin, sores that won’t heal, or changes to existing moles


Cancer - Symptoms and causes - Rohilkhand Cancer Institute | Pet CT Scan in Bareilly


When to see a doctor

If you have any persistent symptoms that worry you, schedule a visit with your physician.

Talk to your doctor if you’re concerned about your cancer risk even if you don’t have any symptoms or indicators. Find out which cancer screening methods and tests are suitable for you.


DNA alterations, or mutations, within cells, are what lead to cancer. Numerous distinct genes, each containing a set of instructions directing the cell’s growth and division in addition to the tasks it must carry out, are bundled into the DNA of a single cell. Incorrect instructions have the potential to disrupt a cell’s normal activity and even enable a malignant cell to grow.

Gene mutations: what do they do?

A gene mutation can instruct a healthy cell to:

Permit quick expansion. A cell can be instructed to grow and divide more quickly by a gene mutation. As a result, numerous additional cells with the identical mutation are produced.

Neglect to halt unchecked cell proliferation. Normal cells know when to cease proliferating to achieve the ideal balance of each cell type. The tumour suppressor genes, which tell cancer cells when to stop growing, are lost in cancer cells. A tumour suppressor gene mutation permits cancer cells to proliferate and multiply.

Make blunders when fixing faults in DNA. DNA repair genes search for and fix mistakes in a cell’s DNA. A mutation in a DNA repair gene could prevent other errors from being fixed, which could cause cells to develop cancer.

These are the most prevalent mutations observed in cancer. However, cancer can also be caused by a wide variety of other gene abnormalities.

What causes gene mutations?

Gene mutations can arise from various causes, such as:

genetic mutations inherited from birth. It’s possible that you were born with a genetic mutation passed down from your parents. A tiny fraction of malignancies are caused by this kind of mutation.

mutations in genes that happen after birth. The majority of gene mutations happen after birth and are not inherited. Numerous factors, including smoking, radiation, viruses, and carcinogens—chemicals that cause cancer—obesity, hormones, chronic inflammation, and inactivity, can result in gene alterations.

Gene mutations occur frequently during normal cell growth. However, cells contain a mechanism that recognizes when a mistake occurs and repairs the mistake. Occasionally, a mistake is missed. This could cause a cell to become cancerous.

What is the relationship between gene mutations?

Cancer is caused by a combination of gene mutations that you are born with and those that you acquire throughout your life.

For example, just because you were born with a genetic mutation that makes you more likely to get cancer does not guarantee that you will. Alternatively, cancer might only be caused by one or more additional gene alterations. You may be more susceptible than other people to acquire cancer from a particular cancer-causing agent due to an inherited gene mutation.

The exact number of mutations needed to produce cancer is unknown. This probably changes according to the type of cancer.

Risk factors

Although there are certain things that doctors know can raise your risk of cancer, most cancer cases happen to persons who have no known risk factors. The following are known to raise your risk of cancer:

Your age

The development of cancer can take decades. Because of this, most cancer patients are 65 years of age or older. Although it is more common in older persons, cancer is not only an adult illness; a diagnosis can come from any age.

Your habits

There are proven lifestyle factors that raise your risk of cancer. Cancer can be caused by several factors, including smoking, drinking more than one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, being fat, getting sunburned frequently, and engaging in risky sexual behaviour.

Though certain habits are harder to break than others, you may alter some to reduce your risk of developing cancer.

Your family history

Only a tiny percentage of malignancies are caused by hereditary factors. Mutations are likely being passed down from one generation to the next if cancer runs in your family. To find out if you have any inherited mutations that could raise your chance of developing specific malignancies, you might be a candidate for genetic testing. Remember that a hereditary genetic mutation does not guarantee that you will develop cancer.

Your health conditions

There are certain long-term medical problems, including ulcerative colitis, that can significantly raise your risk of getting specific types of cancer. Discuss your risk with your physician.

Your environment

There could be dangerous compounds in your surroundings that raise your chance of developing cancer. If you live with someone who smokes or visit places where people are smoking, you may still breathe in secondhand smoke even though you don’t smoke. Chemicals found in your house or place of employment, like benzene and asbestos, are also linked to a higher risk of cancer.


Cancer and its treatment can cause several complications, including:

While not every cancer is severe, pain can be brought on by cancer or the treatments used to treat it. Pain associated with cancer can be successfully treated with medications and other methods.

Weary. Cancer patients’ fatigue has several reasons, but it is frequently treatable. Although common, fatigue following radiation therapy or chemotherapy is typically transient.

trouble breathing. Breathlessness may be a symptom of cancer or cancer treatment. Relief from treatment may be possible.

Nausea can result from some malignancies and cancer treatments. There are situations when your doctor can anticipate whether a treatment may make you sick. Medication and other therapies might assist you in avoiding or lessening nausea.

both constipation and diarrhoea. Constipation or diarrhoea can be a side effects of cancer and cancer treatment.

Reduced weight. Loss of weight can result from cancer and cancer treatments. Normal cells lose nutrients and nourishment because of cancer. It is hard to cure and is frequently unaffected by calorie intake or kind of diet. Artificial feeding administered via veins or stomach tubes typically has little effect on weight loss.

modifications to your body’s chemistry. Your body’s natural chemical equilibrium can be disturbed by cancer, which also raises the possibility of major consequences. Chemical imbalances can cause constipation, frequent urination, excessive thirst, and confusion, among other signs and symptoms.

neurological and brain issues. Cancer may compress adjacent nerves, resulting in pain and loss of function in a particular body region. Brain cancer can result in headaches as well as stroke-like symptoms, like weakness on one side of the body.

unusual responses of the immune system to malignancy. When cancer is present, the immune system of the body may occasionally target healthy cells in response. These extremely unusual reactions, known as paraneoplastic syndromes, can cause a wide range of signs and symptoms, including walking difficulties and convulsions.

Metastatic cancer. Cancer has the potential to spread (metastasize) to different body parts as it progresses. The type of cancer determines where it spreads.

recurrent cancer Cancer survivors are susceptible to developing new cancers. More cancers than others have a higher chance of returning. Find out from your doctor what steps you can take to lower your chance of developing cancer again. A post-treatment follow-up care plan may be created by your physician for you. To check for a recurrence of cancer, this plan may involve routine tests and scans in the months and years following your treatment.


Physicians have discovered several strategies to lower your risk of cancer, including:

Give up smoking. Give up smoking if you do. Don’t start if you don’t smoke. Not just lung cancer but several cancers are associated with smoking. Giving up now will lower your chance of developing cancer later on.

Steer clear of too much sun exposure. Skin cancer risk is increased by the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. Reduce the amount of time you spend in the sun by using sunscreen, wearing protective clothes, or remaining in the shade.

Consume a balanced diet. Select a fruit- and vegetable-rich diet. Choose lean proteins and healthful grains. Reduce the amount of processed meat you eat.

On most days of the week, work out. A lowered risk of cancer is associated with regular exercise. On most days of the week, try to get in at least 30 minutes of exercise. If you haven’t been working out frequently, begin with modest exercise and gradually increase to 30 minutes or more.

Sustain a healthy weight. Obesity or being overweight can raise your risk of developing cancer. Use a balanced diet and frequent exercise to help you reach and stay at a healthy weight.

If you decide to drink, do so in moderation. If you decide to consume alcohol, do so sparingly. This translates to up to one drink for women and up to two for men per day for healthy individuals.

Make an appointment for a cancer screening exam. Discuss with your physician the best cancer screening tests for you based on your risk factors.

Consult your physician about vaccinations. Your risk of cancer is increased by certain viruses. Immunisations may aid in the prevention of certain viruses, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), which raises the risk of cervical cancer and other malignancies, and hepatitis B, which raises the risk of liver cancer. Consult your physician to determine if you should receive a vaccination against these viruses.





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