Rohilkhand Cancer Institute

Immunotherapy as a Cancer Treatment

Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment in which your immune system aids in the fight against cancer. Your immune system assists your body in fighting infections and other diseases. It is made up of white blood cells as well as lymphatic organs and tissues.

Immunotherapy falls under the category of biological therapy. Biological therapy is a type of cancer treatment that employs substances derived from living organisms.

How does immunotherapy combat cancer?

The immune system detects and destroys abnormal cells as part of its normal function, and it most likely prevents or slows the growth of many cancers. Immune cells, for example, are sometimes found in and around tumours. These cells, known as tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), indicate that the immune system is reacting to the tumour. People whose tumours contain TILs often fare better than those whose tumours do not.

Even though the immune system can prevent or slow cancer growth, cancer cells can avoid immune system destruction. Cancer cells, for example, may:

Have genetic changes that reduce their visibility to the immune system.
They have proteins on their surface that inhibit immune cells.
Change the normal cells in the tumour’s vicinity so that they interfere with the immune system’s response to the cancer cells.
Immunotherapy improves the immune system’s ability to fight cancer.

What are the different types of immunotherapy?

Treat cancer, various types of immunotherapy are used. These are some examples:

1 Immune checkpoint inhibitors are medications that inhibit immune checkpoints. These checkpoints are a normal part of the immune system that prevents overly aggressive immune responses. These drugs allow immune cells to respond more strongly to cancer by blocking them.

2 T-cell transfer therapy is a treatment that improves your T cells’ natural ability to fight cancer. Immune cells are extracted from your tumour during this treatment. Those that are most active against your cancer are chosen or changed in the lab to better attack your cancer cells, grown in large batches, and then injected back into your body through a vein needle.
Adoptive cell therapy, adoptive immunotherapy, and immune cell therapy are other terms for T-cell transfer therapy.

3 Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-created immune system proteins that are designed to bind to specific targets on cancer cells. Some monoclonal antibodies label cancer cells so that the immune system can detect and destroy them. These monoclonal antibodies are used in immunotherapy.
Monoclonal antibodies are also referred to as therapeutic antibodies.

4 Cancer treatment vaccines work by increasing your immune system’s response to cancer cells. Treatment vaccines differ from disease prevention vaccines.

5 Immune system modulators that boost the body’s immune response to cancer. Some of these agents affect specific parts of the immune system, while others have a broader impact on the immune system.

Which cancers is immunotherapy used to treat?

Many types of cancer have been approved for treatment with immunotherapy drugs. Immunotherapy, on the other hand, is not as widely used as surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. See the PDQ® adult cancer treatment summaries and childhood cancer treatment summaries to learn whether immunotherapy may be used to treat your cancer.

What are the risks of immunotherapy?

Immunotherapy can have side effects, many of which occur when the immune system that has been activated to fight cancer also attacks healthy cells and tissues in your body.

How is immunotherapy administered?

1 intravenous (IV) (IV)
Immunotherapy is administered directly into a vein.
2 oral
Immunotherapy is administered in the form of pills or capsules that are swallowed.
3 topical
The immunotherapy comes in the form of a cream that you apply to your skin. This type of immunotherapy can be used in the early stages of skin cancer.
4 intravesical
The immunotherapy is delivered directly to the bladder.

How frequently do you get immunotherapy?

The frequency and duration of immunotherapy are determined by:

your cancer type and stage, the type of immunotherapy you receive, and how your body responds to treatment
You could be treated every day, every week, or every month. Some types of immunotherapy are administered in cycles. A cycle is a treatment period followed by a period of rest. The rest period allows your body to recover, respond to immunotherapy, and regenerate new healthy cells.

How do you know if immunotherapy is effective?

You will see your doctor frequently. He or she will examine you physically and ask you how you are feeling. You will be subjected to medical tests such as blood tests and various types of scans. These tests will look for changes in your blood work and measure the size of your tumour.

What is the current state of immunotherapy research?

To improve immunotherapy, researchers are focusing on several major areas, including:

1 Identifying and addressing resistance.

Only a small percentage of people who receive immunotherapy will benefit from it. A major area of research is determining how to predict which people will respond to treatment.

2 Understanding how cancer cells avoid or suppress immune responses against them.

A better understanding of how cancer cells avoid detection by the immune system may lead to the development of new drugs that inhibit those processes.

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